Resolvin D2 Attenuates Cardiovascular Damage in Angiotensin Ii-Induced Hypertension
Resolution of inflammation is orchestrated by specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs), and this would be impaired in some cardiovascular diseases. Among SPMs, resolvins (Rv) have beneficial effects in cardiovascular pathologies, but little is known about their effect on cardiovascular damage in hypertension.
Aorta, small mesenteric arteries, heart, and peritoneal macrophages were taken from C57BL/6J mice, infused or not with Angiotensin II (AngII 1.44 mg/kg/day, 14 days) in presence or absence of RvD2 (100 ng/mice, every second day) starting 1 day before or 7 days after AngII infusion.
Enzymes and receptors involved in SPMs biosynthesis and signaling were increased in aorta or heart from AngII-infused mice. We also observed a differential regulation of SPMs in heart from these mice. Preventive treatment with RvD2 partially avoided AngII-induced hypertension and protected the heart and large and small vessels against functional and structural alterations induced by AngII. RvD2 increased the availability of vasoprotective factors, modified SPMs profile, decreased cardiovascular fibrosis, and increased the infiltration of pro-resolving macrophages. When administered in hypertensive animals with established cardiovascular damage, RvD2 partially improved cardiovascular function and structure, decreased fibrosis, reduced the infiltration of neutrophils, and shifted macrophage phenotype toward a pro-resolving phenotype.
There is a disbalance between proinflammatory and resolution mediators in hypertension. RvD2 protects cardiovascular function and structure when administered before and after the development of hypertension by modulating vascular factors, fibrosis and inflammation. Activating resolution mechanisms by treatment with RvD2 may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of hypertensive cardiovascular disease.