Intracerebral hemorrhage, cerebral infarction, and subdural hematoma after acute myocardial infarction and thrombolytic therapy in the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction Study. Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction, Phase II, pilot and clinical trial.
In the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction, Phase II pilot and clinical trial, 908 patients [326 (35.9%) in the pilot study and 582 (64.0%) in the randomized study] were treated with 150 mg recombinant tissue-type plasminogen (rt-PA) activator in combination with heparin and aspirin, and 3,016 patients [64 (2.1%) in the pilot study and 2,952 (97.9%) in the randomized study] were treated with 100 mg rt-PA in combination with heparin and aspirin. Adverse neurological events occurred in 23 patients treated with 150 mg rt-PA (2.5%) [nine cerebral infarctions (1.0%), 12 intracerebral hemorrhages (1.3%), and two subdural hematomas (0.2%)] and in 33 patients treated with 100 mg rt-PA (1.1%) [20 cerebral infarctions (0.7%), 11 intracerebral hemorrhages (0.4%), and two subdural hematomas (0.1%)]. The difference in adverse neurological events observed comparing the two rt-PA regimens was primarily due to a higher frequency of intracerebral bleeding among patients treated with 150 mg rt-PA (1.3% versus 0.4%, p less than 0.01). Patients with recent (within 6 months) histories of stroke were not eligible for the study, and patients with any history of cerebrovascular disease were declared ineligible early in the study. The small number of patients (89, or 2.3%) with any history of neurological disease, intermittent cerebral ischemic attacks, or stroke who were enrolled before the stricter eligibility criteria were imposed or on the basis of incomplete baseline information experienced an increased frequency of intracerebral hemorrhage compared with patients without such histories (3.4% versus 0.5%). Mortality at 6 weeks after presentation among 23 patients who had intracerebral hemorrhage was 47.8%. Intracerebral hemorrhage is a severe but infrequent complication of rt-PA therapy for acute myocardial infarction. The combined frequency of intracerebral hemorrhage, subdural hematoma, and cerebral infarction after treatment with 100 mg rt-PA is comparable to that observed in other trials with thrombolytic agents in acute myocardial infarction.